EventDriven.Sagas.Abstractions 1.6.0

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Abstractions and reference architecture for implementing the Saga pattern to orchestrate atomic operations which span multiple services.





Reference Architecture

  • SagaConfigDefinition: Saga Configuration Definition
    • Provides method that returns a SagaConfigurationDto containing Create Order Saga steps, actions and commands.
  • Common: Contains models and events that are exchanged between services taking part in the saga. Also contains behaviors for cross-cutting concerns such as validation or logging.
  • OrderService: Contains CreateOrderSaga with dispatchers, commands, handlers and evaluators for orchestrating a saga with updates that span multiple services.
  • CustomerService: Contains handlers for processing integration events that update the customer data store when credit is reserved or released.


The purpose of the Saga pattern is to enable atomic operations which span multiple microservices, each of which have their own private data store. Each service may perform local transactions against their data store, but distributed transactions in the classical sense are impractical in a miroservices architecture, where holding locks for the two-phase protocol would impair performance and scalability.

The Saga pattern consists of a series of steps with actions and corresponding compensating actions. Steps have a sequence number, and actions have a command which is executed by a participating microservice and has an expected result. The saga can then use the result as a basis for executing the next step or initiating a rollback with a series of compensating actions. Sagas can be configured and persisted via a durable data store.

The Saga orchestrator coordinates the entire process by telling each participant what to do and invoking the next participant in either moving the saga forward or rolling it backwards. The orchestrator can run in the same process as the initiating microservice, and it can also communicate with other microservices asynchronously through an event bus abstraction.

Saga Orchestration

Running the Sample

Generate the saga configuration

  1. Run the SagaConfigService locally.
    • Open a terminal at the SagaConfigService project.
    • Execute dotnet run.
  2. Install the sagaconfig CLI global tool.
    dotnet tool install -g EventDriven.Sagas.SagaConfig.CLI --version 1.0.0-beta1
  3. Open a terminal at reference-architecture/SagaConfigDefinitions.
    • Run the sagaconfig command, passing required parameters.
      • Specify a Guid as the -id parameter for the Saga Config Id.
      • Specify a relative path to the location of the SagaConfigDefinitions.dll file for the -p parameter.
      • Specify the name of the json folder for the -j parameter.
    • Include the -uri parameter to save a config JSON file and post to the SagaConfig Service.
      • First run the SagaConfigService project.
    sagaconfig -id d89ffb1e-7481-4111-a4dd-ac5123217293 -p bin/Debug/net6.0 -j json -uri http://localhost:5256/api/sagaconfig/

Run services with Tye and Dapr

Note: As an alternative to Tye, you can run services directly usng the Dapr CLI. This may be useful for troubleshooting Dapr issues after setting Microsoft.AspNetCore logging level to Debug. dapr run --app-id service-name --app-port #### --components-path ../dapr/components -- dotnet run

  1. Open a terminal at the reference-architecture directory and run Tye to launch all services simultaneously.
    tye run
  2. Alternatively, run Tye in debug mode.
    tye run --debug *
    • Set breakpoints in OrderService, CustomerService, InventoryService.
    • Attach the IDE debugger to OrderService.dll, CustomerService.dll, InventoryService.dll.
  3. Open the Tye dashboard at http://localhost:8000 to inspect service endpoints and view logs.

Start the saga by creating a new order

  1. First create a new customer.
    • Open customers.json in the json folder in CustomerService to copy the JSON for the first customer.
    • Navigate to the customer service and execute a POST with the copied JSON: http://localhost:5064/swagger/
  2. Then create a new order.
    • Open order.json in the json folder in OrderService to copy the JSON for a new order.
    • Navigate to the order service and execute a POST with the copied JSON: http://localhost:5214/swagger/
  3. To observe the flow of the Create Order saga, you should run Tye in debug mode. Set the following breakpoints in the Order service.
    • Contollers: OrderCommandController.
      • Create method.
        • Step into _commandHandler.Handle.
    • Sagas: CreateOrderSaga.
      • ExecuteCurrentActionAsync method.
        • Step into SagaCommandDispatcher.DispatchCommandAsync.
      • HandleCommandResultAsync methods.
        • Step into HandleCommandResultForStepAsync.
    • Integration/Handlers: CustomerCreditReserveFulfilledEventHandler.
      • HandleAsync method.
        • Step into handler.HandleCommandResultAsync.
    • Integration/Handlers: ProductInventoryReserveFulfilledEventHandler.
      • HandleAsync method.
        • Step into handler.HandleCommandResultAsync.
  4. Set breakpoints in the Customer and Inventory services.
    • Integration/Handlers: ProductInventoryReserveRequestedEventHandler.
      • HandleAsync method.
        • Step into _commandHandler.Handle.
    • Integration/Handlers: CustomerCreditReserveRequestedEventHandler.
      • HandleAsync method.
        • Step into _commandHandler.Handle.
  5. If the saga completed succssfully, the order State property should be set to 2 (Created). Customer credit and product inventory should be reduced accordingly.
    • If the saga was unsuccessful due to insufficient credit, then the order State property should be set to 0 (Initial) and the customer credit should be unchanged.
    • If the saga was unsuccessul due to an error condition, the order State property may be set to 1 (Pending). If this is the case you may need to delete the order record in MongoDB, or reset the State property of the order to 0 (Initial).

Persist Sagas to Redis

You have the option of using Redis for saga persistence, which offers performance advantages over MongoDB.

  1. Add PersistableSagaRedisSettings section to appsettings.json.
"PersistableSagaRedisSettings": {
  "ConnectionString": "localhost:6379",
  "InstanceName": "OrderService",
  "DistributedCacheEntryOptions": {
    "SlidingExpiration": "00:05:00"
  1. Add saga Redis settings
  1. Pass RedisPersistableSagaRepository to AddSaga.
builder.Services.AddSaga<CreateOrderSaga, OrderMetadata, CreateOrderSagaConfigSettings, CreateOrderSagaCommandDispatcher,
    SagaConfigRepository, SagaSnapshotRepository, RedisPersistableSagaRepository<CreateOrderSaga, OrderMetadata>>(builder.Configuration);

Development Guide


Saga orchestration begins with the service that initiates the saga. In the reference architecture this is the Order service. Sagas consist of steps, actions and commands, which are arranged in a saga configuration that is read from a durable store.

The first step is to create a saga orchestrator class that inherits from PersistableSaga, which ensures that snapshots of the saga are persisted as each step is executed. In the Order service this is the CreateOrderSaga class.

The following diagram illustrates how various classes are used in the execution of a saga.

<p align="center"> <img width="900" src="images/saga-workflow.png"> </p>

In the reference-architecture/SagaConfigDefintiions project, the CreateOrderSagaConfigDefinition class implements ISagaConfigDefinition with a CreateSagaConfig that accepts a saga config id and returns a SagaConfigurationDto that has steps with actions and compensating actions, each with a saga command that is serialized to a JSON string.

In the saga orchestrator class you will override two methods: ExecuteCurrentActionAsync, for executing actions when the saga is started, and ExecuteCurrentCompensatingActionAsync, for executing compensating actions when the saga is rolled back. Each of these uses a dispatcher to execute a command that is defined in the saga configuration.

The dispatcher sends the command to a handler that uses a repository to update entity state and then publishes an integration event to the event bus. For example, the CreateOrderSagaCommandDispatcher dispatches a ReserveCustomerCredit command to the ReserveCustomerCreditCommandHandler, which publishes a CustomerCreditReserveRequest integration event to an IEventBus.

Other services, such as Customer and Inventory, subscribe to integration events and use their own command handlers to process requests and publish responses back to the event bus.

The service that initiated the saga has its own integration event handlers to handle responses published by external services. For example, the Order service has a CustomerCreditReserveFulfilledEventHandler that dispatches the result to CreateOrderSaga, which implements ISagaCommandResultHandler<CustomerCreditReserveResponse> with a HandleCommandResultAsync method that updates the saga state machine so that it knows whether to execute the next step in the saga or to roll back the saga with a series of compensating actions.

In the case of CreateOrderSaga, it is configured to perform the following steps:

  • First, change the order state from Intial to Pending in order to lock the saga and prevent changes to the order while the saga is being executed.
  • Second, reserve customer credit. If the customer has insufficient credit for the order, initiate a rollback of the previous step by setting the order state to Initial.
  • Third, reserve product inventory. If there is insifficient inventory to process the order, initiate a rollback of previous steps in the saga, starting with a release of the credit that was previously reserved for the order.
  • Fourth, set the order state to Created.


For step-by-step instructions on how to build a saga orchestration that executes updates across multiple services, please see the Development Guide.

Product Compatible and additional computed target framework versions.
.NET net6.0 is compatible.  net6.0-android was computed.  net6.0-ios was computed.  net6.0-maccatalyst was computed.  net6.0-macos was computed.  net6.0-tvos was computed.  net6.0-windows was computed.  net7.0 was computed.  net7.0-android was computed.  net7.0-ios was computed.  net7.0-maccatalyst was computed.  net7.0-macos was computed.  net7.0-tvos was computed.  net7.0-windows was computed.  net8.0 was computed.  net8.0-android was computed.  net8.0-browser was computed.  net8.0-ios was computed.  net8.0-maccatalyst was computed.  net8.0-macos was computed.  net8.0-tvos was computed.  net8.0-windows was computed. 
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A set of abstractions for implementing the Saga pattern.


A set of abstractions for implementing the Saga pattern.


A set of abstractions for implementing the Saga pattern.

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